Knowledge and practice of Iraqi community pharmacists on national adverse events reporting and review of the constraints of drug safety reporting

  • Samer Shukur Mohammed Al-Rafidain University College, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Wael Waleed Musatafa Al-Turath University College, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Manal Mohammed Younus Iraqi Pharmacovigilance Center, Ministry of Health, Baghdad, Iraq
Keywords: drug safety, adverse events reporting, community pharmacists, Iraq


Introduction: Pharmacovigilance aids in protecting patients from adverse drug effects. Community pharmacists can play a significant role in the reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) due to their advantageous position in terms of direct contact with patients and medical specialization,

Objectives: To determine the pharmacists' awareness in Baghdad and attitude regarding the national adverse drug reactions (ADRs) system activities in Iraq and their knowledge about the spontaneous reporting system

Methods: In this study, a validated self-administered cross-sectional questionnaire was used. During the study period, the questionnaire was distributed to 278 community pharmacists who worked in Baghdad for 4 months.

Results: Out of 278 pharmacists who participated in this questionnaire, 250 pharmacists completed the questionnaire. About 57% of them were female with less than 10 years experience in retail pharmacies. The study showed that about 76% already had information about the term pharmacovigilance and the existence of a pharmacovigilance center in Iraq, but about half of them showed a low level of knowledge about the way of filling, reporting, and sending  ADR reports. Furthermore, About 90% of them prefer new ways of filling the ADR reports like using special mobile apps, special QR codes, and more simplified adverse event forms.

Conclusion: The study revealed that the community pharmacists in Baghdad have a positive view on ADR and pharmacovigilance, but several barriers were revealed that could impede the Iraqi pharmacovigilance center activities regarding spontaneous reporting of health care professionals.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Samer Shukur Mohammed, Al-Rafidain University College, Baghdad, Iraq

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy

Wael Waleed Musatafa, Al-Turath University College, Baghdad, Iraq

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy


Alraie, N. A., Saad, A. A., Sabry, N. A., & Farid, S. F. (2016). Adverse drug reactions reporting: a questionnaire-based study on Egyptian pharmacists' attitudes following an awareness workshop. Journal of evaluation in clinical practice, 22(3), 349–355.

Bahlol, M., Bushell, M., Khojah, H. M. J., & Dewey, R. S. (2022). Spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting by community pharmacists: preparedness and barriers. Saudi pharmaceutical journal : SPJ : the official publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society, 30(7), 1052–1059.

Cheema, E., Haseeb, A., Khan, T. M., Sutcliffe, P., & Singer, D. R. (2017). Barriers to reporting of adverse drugs reactions: a cross sectional study among community pharmacists in United Kingdom. Pharmacy practice, 15(3), 931.

Fornasier, G., Francescon, S., Leone, R., & Baldo, P. (2018). An historical overview over Pharmacovigilance. International journal of clinical pharmacy, 40(4), 744–747.

Generali, J. A., Danish, M. A., & Rosenbaum, S. E. (1995). Knowledge of and attitudes about adverse drug reaction reporting among Rhode Island pharmacists. The Annals of pharmacotherapy, 29(4), 365–369.

Harmack, L., & Van Grootheest, A. C. (2008). Pharmacovigilance: methods, recent developments and future perspectives. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 64(8), 743-752.

Jones JK, Kingery E. Andrews EB, Moore N (2014). Mann‘s Pharmacovigilance. 3 ed. Oxford, UK, p. 11-24.

Mazzitello, C., Esposito, S., De Francesco, A. E., Capuano, A., Russo, E., & De Sarro, G. (2013, Dec 4). Pharmacovigilance in Italy: an overview. Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics, 4(1_suppl), S20-S28.

Members of the WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring (2023,March 09).

Meyboom, R. H., Egberts, A. C., Gribnau, F. W., & Hekster, Y. A. (1999). Pharmacovigilance in perspective. Drug safety, 21(6), 429-447.

Salih, M., Abd, A., Kurmanji, J., Al-Lela, Q., et al. (2016). Assessment of community pharmacists concerning pharmacovigilance in Iraq. Archives of Pharmacy Practice, 7(4), 136

Van Grootheest, K. (2003, October). The dawn of pharmacovigilance: An historical perspective. International journal of pharmaceutical medicine, 17(5-6), 200

World Health Organization (2002). The importance of pharmacovigilance, World Health Organization.

How to Cite
Mohammed SS, Musatafa WW, Mohammed Younus M. Knowledge and practice of Iraqi community pharmacists on national adverse events reporting and review of the constraints of drug safety reporting. jpadr [Internet]. 2023Dec.1 [cited 2024Feb.21];4(4):24-0. Available from: